The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes over 16 weeks. Specifically, we wanted to learn the diet's effects on glycemia and diabetes medication use in outpatients who prepared (or bought) their own meals. In a previous article, we reported the results observed in 7 individuals [10]; this report includes data from those 7 individuals along with data from additional participants enrolled subsequently.
Recently, there been some controversy surrounding the Mediterranean diet and its potential benefits. In 2013, a landmark study found that people put on a Mediterranean diet had a 30 percent lower chance of heart attack, stroke or death from cardiovascular disease than people on a low-fat diet. However, in June 2018 it was reported that the initial study was flawed. Though researchers re-evaluated the data and determined the results to be the same, this is something to consider when determining with your doctor whether the Mediterranean diet is best for you.
I lived the last 10 years with this disease and a mentality of “Well all those other people around me are eating and drinking this stuff, so I want to be normal like them” I’m lucky that mentality didnt kill me. I’ve had A1C of 12, bad cholestoral in the high 600s and triglycerides of almost 2000. And yes, the author is right, our lives are ridiculously built around food. That’s why we have an obesity epidemic in this country. I am the only person I know that eats healthy. Everywhere I went for the last 10 years I was surrounded by food and drink. Oh well. Moderation is only the key for people with good genes. For people like me, sacrifice is the key. I don’t want a normal life anymore. Excuse my vulgarity, but I want energy, six pack abs, and a hard dick again. This disease wrecked my life and I’m never going back there again.
Calcium and vitamin C team up well to boost metabolism, and broccoli is just one of several healthy foods that contain both nutrients. What sets broccoli apart from the others, however, is that the green veggie also contains kind of fiber that’s been shown to increase the digestion, absorption and storage of food, also known as the thermic effect of food or TEF. A revved up metabolism combined with an increased TEF is a match made in weight loss heaven!
Bulk buy and cook. If you’re someone who doesn’t like to spend a lot of time in the kitchen, this is the best of both worlds. Buying your food at bulk (specifically from wholesalers) can reduce the cost per pound tremendously. Plus, you can make ahead food (bulk cook chicken thighs for pre-made meat, or cook entire meals) that are used as leftovers, so you spend less time cooking.
“The DASH and Mediterranean Diet consistently rank as two of the best eating plans” The 2 diet plans that vegans have been pushing for 100 years. Look at how well they have worked. Look at how much weight you have never lost on these terrible diets. Doctors have 6 hours of nutrition training. Nutritionists must follow the Mediterranean Diet or they will loose there license. All i am saying is give Keto, NSNG, Palio or Atkins a try. Once you see the pounds fall off, you will not go back to sugars and grains.

Sure, nuts aren’t known for being low in calories, but they have an array of other properties—namely a high protein and fiber content—that makes them ideal for weight loss. A study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, Circulation, found that consuming 1.5 ounces of almonds daily (as opposed to a carb-dense muffin) along with a heart-healthy diet, helped to improve cholesterol and lipid profiles among the research participants. The study also found that eating almonds reduces belly fat, too.
This diet plan will be especially important for people with metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, or diabetes. Post menopausal women will find that this plans helps them lose that extra midlife weight that is so troublesome. It will reduce your body's demand for insulin, and reduce the tendency to deposit fat in your midsection. Yes, that's right - this plan will reduce your waist size, which is an important indicator of health risks.
This was simply the best response to this article. The doctor who wrote it has no idea of the life changing benefits of keto. Bravo to you for speaking up. Congratulations on reversing your diabetes. I dont have diabetes and am not obese but I switched to keto to live a longer healthier life. I’ve never felt better. Must mention that I am 32. I want to prevent disease. Let the food be the medicine.
What a great post. I thought i would add about the selection of food you eat on keto and that everyone is different. Some food gives you energy and some doesnt, this varies person to person. I started and quit keto 3 times before i managed to find my balance. The first few times it made be poorly, from the shock of diet change. However, you can wean yourself into the diet which i did the last time when i had the most success.
Fish and seafood come next, eaten about twice a week. Poultry, eggs and dairy in the form of cheese and yogurt are eaten in moderate portions on a daily or weekly basis. For example, one review of research on Mediterranean eating suggests about four eggs a week. At the very top of the pyramid -- meaning you eat them only sparingly -- are red meat and sweets. Preferred beverages include water, as well as red wine, in moderation.
Here’s what we do know: The keto diet may be useful in treating symptoms of epilepsy, a seizure disorder. “The use of keto in treating epilepsy has the most evidence,” Angelone says. One study conducted by Johns Hopkins Medicine, for example, followed epileptic patients on the keto diet and found that 36 percent of them had a 50 percent reduction in seizures after three months on the diet, and 16 percent were seizure-free. However, experts aren't entirely sure why the keto diet has this affect, she adds.
The keto diet changes the way your body converts food into energy. Eating a lot of fat and very few carbs puts you in ketosis, a metabolic state where your body burns fat instead of carbs for fuel. When your body is unable to get glucose from carbs, your liver converts fatty acids from your diet into ketones, an alternative source of energy. Burning ketones in place of glucose reduces inflammation and spurs weight loss.[1]
Many equate healthy eating, particularly lower-sodium eating such as DASH, with the idea that all meals have to be cooked from scratch. This is overwhelming for many (myself included), but there are plenty of tricks and tips to help you. First, understand that “whole foods” doesn’t exclusively mean fresh produce. Take advantage of time-saving, minimally processed foods like unseasoned frozen vegetables and no-salt-added canned veggies.
I lived the last 10 years with this disease and a mentality of “Well all those other people around me are eating and drinking this stuff, so I want to be normal like them” I’m lucky that mentality didnt kill me. I’ve had A1C of 12, bad cholestoral in the high 600s and triglycerides of almost 2000. And yes, the author is right, our lives are ridiculously built around food. That’s why we have an obesity epidemic in this country. I am the only person I know that eats healthy. Everywhere I went for the last 10 years I was surrounded by food and drink. Oh well. Moderation is only the key for people with good genes. For people like me, sacrifice is the key. I don’t want a normal life anymore. Excuse my vulgarity, but I want energy, six pack abs, and a hard dick again. This disease wrecked my life and I’m never going back there again.
And what benefit you will have with “moderate” diets that let you eat bread and others carbohydrates but high insulin ? remember that it is critical to not only look after glucose levels on blood, it is very very important to reduce your intake of insulin to avoid a lot of diseases including metabolic syndrome for high insulin and insulin resistance.
After seeing thousands of patients now for years and from personal experience, I still believe it comes down to staying away from processed foods and cooking at home whenever possible. Eating a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, proteins, and fiber. Also, cutting out any sugary liquid calories; staying away from sodas, juices and the infamous sweet tea! Keeping stress levels under control and incorporating exercise into your routine will also be key to breaking through challenging times when you are having trouble with continued weight loss.
With virtually no food groups as off-limits, DASH offers much more flexibility than other popular diet plans. It can also aid in weight loss and weight maintenance, given its emphasis on overall health. With all its praiseworthy qualities, you’d think everyone would be following a DASH diet plan. But here’s the surprising truth—less than 2 percent of the population actually follows the DASH diet.
What a great post. I thought i would add about the selection of food you eat on keto and that everyone is different. Some food gives you energy and some doesnt, this varies person to person. I started and quit keto 3 times before i managed to find my balance. The first few times it made be poorly, from the shock of diet change. However, you can wean yourself into the diet which i did the last time when i had the most success.

Chronic stress may increase levels of stress hormones such as cortisol in your body. This can cause increased hunger and result in weight gain. If you’re looking to lose weight, you should review possible ways to decrease or better handle excessive stress in your life. Although this often demands substantial changes, even altering small things – such as posture – may immediately affect your stress hormone levels, and perhaps your weight.
I think the larger question is why we are seeing such a sudden rash of anti-keto stories. So many of them quote no experts sources and do not provide citations for their claims. Skeptics with little acquaintance with the diet are quoted exclusively instead. From a journalistic perspective, this lack of balance of viewpoints and the failure to back up claims with evidence falls below basic reporting standards. Offenders on this list include even the Harvard School of Public Health, which recently published more than one  unsourced, one-sided article on the keto diet (This is in addition to the Lancet Public Health article cited above, by Harvard researchers, which suggests that a low-carb diet kills you). These stories could reflect lazy reporting or they could very well be scare tactics to steer people away from the keto diet.  Why would reporters or scientists at Harvard be doing such a thing? That’s material for another post. Stay tuned.
Christian Wolfrum, one of the corresponding authors on the paper said 'Diabetes is one of the biggest health issues we face. Although ketogenic diets are known to be healthy, our findings indicate that there may be an increased risk of insulin resistance with this type of diet that may lead to Type 2 diabetes. The next step is to try to identify the mechanism for this effect and to address whether this is a physiological adaptation. Our hypothesis is that when fatty acids are metabolized, their products might have important signaling roles to play in the brain.'
When it comes to the "best" diet for most people, this one consistently ranks at the top of every list. If you can't afford a cruise to the Mediterranean (yet!), at least you can eat like the beautiful, long-living, and famously healthy people from the region. The Mediterranean diet teaches you to eat like a Sardinian, one of the "blue zones" identified by researchers as having a high number of people living past 100—by eating more fish, olive oil, healthy fats, and fresh vegetables. The point is to have not just a longer life but also a healthier and happier one, whether you're trying to lose weight or not. (Really—research shows that you can reap the benefits of the Mediterranean diet without cutting calories.)
It’s only dangerous to not get enough carbs at each meal if one is taking too much meds or insulin for the amount of carbs they are eating! Restricting carbohydrates doesn’t lead to hypoglycemia unawareness, but having lots of lows and lots of highs will (and decreasing insulin and carbs leads to way fewer highs and fewer lows, or at least it can). On the other hand, being in ketosis does make low blood sugars less negative as an experience. I still feel my lows just fine, but they are less of an emergency because my brain still works (feeding on ketones) and by body doesn’t freak out and release tons of adrenaline that then makes me want to eat a house. Mind you, I still wake up and know immediately if I’m low, I know from experience and how it feels in my head and body but without the crazy shakes. This is not unawareness but it is less reactive.
A review published in December 2015 in the journal Diabetes Therapy suggested ultra-low-carb diets were effective at managing blood sugar, decreasing weight, and managing cardiovascular risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the short term, but the benefits were not sustainable over the long term. When compared with higher-carb diets over a period of longer than about 12 weeks, the health results were similar.
There are many physiological reasons for eating enough carbohydrates throughout the waking hours to maintain a steady blood glucose level…a couple of important reasons are to minimize the hepatic release of glucose (from the liver) and to help prevent hypoglycemia which can be very dangerous and lead to hypoglycemic unawareness over a short period of time. Each person is different of course..if you aren’t taking insulin, or pills that lower your blood glucose levels, you may not have to worry about low blood sugars. The reality is, most people with diabetes do; it can be very dangerous for some to not get enough carbohydrates at each meal.

The good news here is no! All the evidence points to the fact that a low carbohydrate diet actually does lower blood glucose and A1c levels and does contribute to weight loss. The problem is we do not yet have enough large studies, over enough sustained years to support evidence that people with diabetes can remain on a highly restrictive Ketogenic Diet for the rest of their life and also not have other consequences to their health.
On the flip side, hypos can be an issue, especially early on…and if you treat them too aggressively, they could knock you out of ketosis. I remember my first 3 weeks on keto, my CGM trend line hugged a blood sugar of around 80.  It was glorious, but I had to reduce insulin substantially through trial and error and felt like I was low every five seconds.
Pros: Compared to eating a traditional diet, switching to a low-carb diet can significantly reduce body fat, studies show. Cap your carb intake at 20% of daily calories and the weight-loss results are even stronger—plus, you can reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke. Some research suggests low-carb diets are even better than low-fat diets: One study in Annals of Internal Medicine found that people who limited their carbs lost eight more pounds than those who cut back on fat. If you cut back on carbs enough, your body learns to burn fat as fuel instead. Studies are mixed on how low-carb diets affect performance, but some evidence suggests that endurance performance can actually improve among people whose bodies adapt to fat-burning fairly easily.

If the liver is resistant to insulin, that's a bad sign for the rest of the body and could mean there's an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the researchers said. What's more, these results are concerning because overweight patients seeking to reduce their risk of type 2 diabetes by following a ketogenic diet could unintentionally be increasing their risk for developing the disease, at least in the first few days of their diet. 

Using the Bulletproof Diet, including Brain Octane Oil every day for long periods of time, and eating carbohydrates some of the time but not always, avoiding inflammatory foods, and using Bulletproof Intermittent Fasting, I was able to recently test with perfect insulin sensitivity — I scored a one on a scale of 1 to 120 (see my numbers below). I also had above average glucose tolerance. That’s metabolic flexibility by the numbers!
Hello Marylin, Yes, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to be effective for weight loss. However, you dip need to consume the right amounts of food (calories) to lose weight as that varies depending on age, gender activity level etc. Here is a link to the Greek Nutrition Guidelines that includes servings https://www.olivetomato.com/eat-like-greek-greek-dietary-guidelines-a-better-choice/
A woman sitting next to me at jury duty was intently reading this book, so I asked her about it. She recommended it highly - said it was #1 book by U.S. News and World Report, etc. I bought it, read it, and got a lot out of it. It is very similar to the Sonoma Diet, which is the Mediterranean Diet, the most sensible diet I have ever found. I is wound through most of the diet I see these days. Lean, LEAN red meats eaten sparingly, chicken, fish, dried beans, green vegetables, RED fruits and veget ...more

It’s low in saturated fat. You’re not going to feel hungry eating this way, because you can build in a variety of healthy fats. But by limiting large amounts of red or processed meats and relying heavily on monounsaturated fatty acids, like avocado, nuts, or olive oil, you’ll keep saturated fat levels low. These fats don't lead to high cholesterol the same way saturated fats do. Healthful sources of fat include olive oil, fish oils, and nut-based oils, Cohen explains.


Eating low-carb paleo means removing items like rice, pasta, and legumes from your diet completely, but the carbs you eat will be from vegetables like fruit, beets, sweet potatoes, and leafy greens, such as spinach and kale. The diet also cuts out processed food plus foods allowed on other low-carb diets, including milk and cheese, and some people have an easier time sticking with the diet when more carbs are included.
Rami co-founded Tasteaholics with Vicky at the start of 2015 to master the art of creating extremely delicious food while researching the truth behind nutrition, dieting and overall health. You can usually find him marketing, coding or coming up with the next crazy idea because he can’t sit still for too long. His favorite book is The 4-Hour Workweek and artist is Infected Mushroom.
In summary, the LCKD had positive effects on body weight, waist measurement, serum triglycerides, and glycemic control in a cohort of 21 participants with type 2 diabetes. Most impressive is that improvement in hemoglobin A1c was observed despite a small sample size and short duration of follow-up, and this improvement in glycemic control occurred while diabetes medications were reduced substantially in many participants. Future research must further examine the optimal medication adjustments, particularly for diabetes and diuretic agents, in order to avoid possible complications of hypoglycemia and dehydration. Because the LCKD can be very effective at lowering blood glucose, patients on diabetes medication who use this diet should be under close medical supervision or capable of adjusting their medication.
As CDE’s, we individualize our recommendations for each of our patients. One person’s diet may not be appropriate for another person. For example, a six foot 6 inch tall man weighing 220 lbs of mainly muscle, who exercises 2 hours per day at the gym cannot have the same number of carbs per meal as a petite 5 foot 1 inch 75 year old lady who does not exercise.
Milk is limited. There are no long-term risks to eating Mediterranean, says Cohen. But you may be put off if you’re big on eating a lot of milk and rely on it to get all the calcium you need. You’ll get to eat cheese and yogurt, but in smaller amounts. "To get enough calcium in the diet without milk, one would need to eat enough yogurt and cheese, or seek nondairy calcium sources," says Cohen. If needed, drink skim milk. Otherwise, nondairy calcium sources include fortified almond milk, sardines, kale, and tofu made with calcium sulfate. (30)
You’re very welcome, Judy! I’m glad it’s helpful. If you are keto (as opposed to low carb), unfortunately peaches would not allow you to stay in ketosis. You can check my keto food list to help determine what is keto friendly. Of course, there are worse things than fresh fruit 🙂 but in the end our bodies still see the sugar. That being said, it doesn’t mean you sabotaged the whole day. Just pick up again – you got this!! (And for next time, try some fresh berries in moderation when you’re craving fruit.)
The crazy thing is it is not hard, if it matters. Sure I can see it being hard for someone who does it to lose weight, then when they get closer to their ideal, they want to have treats, etc. Well, for a type one diabetic there’s no end in sight, this is it, and it’s a relatively complication free life (many people reverse their complications when they bring their A1C down to normal) vs. one with inevitable complications. So, perhaps it was too hard for you after a year (you didn’t say, but I assume you are not a type one diabetic), but that is a choice you can make. Not I.
The study, which was conducted by ETH Zurich in conjunction with University Children's Hospital Zurich, involved feeding mice two different types of diet (a ketogenic diet and a high fat diet, which causes the liver to become resistant to insulin) and then performing standard metabolic tests on them. Using specialized procedures the researchers were able to determine the effects of internal sugar production from the animal (mostly the liver), and sugar uptake into tissues (mostly the muscle), during insulin action.
Hi Maya. I LOVE your site!! Interesting, informative with fab recipes and ideas. Hubby and I have just started eating low carb and I have to say, we are not finding it too difficult and I already feel sooo much better!! I find the hardest part is choosing low carb veg, I feel as if we are not eating enough. Any suggestions on how to get more veggies into our diet?
Insulin is released in the blood and used to control blood sugar levels including signaling the liver to stop producing sugar. If this system is impaired and the body does not use insulin properly, which is called insulin resistance, individuals are likely to develop high blood sugar levels. In this study the researchers showed that for ketogenic diets this process for controlling blood sugar levels does not work properly and there was insulin resistance in the liver. When the liver is unable to respond to normal levels of insulin to control blood sugar levels this may lead to an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes.
Finally, people eat about nine servings of fruits and vegetables a day on a Mediterranean diet. (1) Produce packs an array of disease-fighting antioxidants, and people who fill their diet with these foods have lower risk of disease. Yet as the National Institutes of Health points out, it’s not known if it’s the antioxidants or other compounds (or general healthy eating patterns) that are responsible for these advantages. (5)

It reduces risk of disease. A growing number of studies suggest that people who follow a Mediterranean diet are less likely to die of heart disease than people who follow a typical American diet. (1) What’s more, evidence is emerging that shows people who eat this way have a lower risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer, and some head and neck cancers, according to studies published in September 2016 in the British Journal of Cancer and in February 2018 in the Journal of Urology. (27,28,29)
Keto decreases inflammation and improves brain function — so much so that Alzheimer’s patients who switch to a keto diet actually begin to recover their brain function, which up until now was unheard of.[20][21][22][23][24] So there’s that. (Dale Bredesen and Mark Hyman have discussed these on the Bulletproof Radio podcast. Check out Dale’s episode here, and Mark’s here.)  
It seems like everyone is talking about the keto diet — the high-fat, low-carb eating plan that promises to turn your body into a fat-burning machine. For that reason, keto has surged in popularity over the past year as a lose-weight-fast strategy. Thank Hollywood A-listers and professional athletes like Halle Berry, Adriana Lima, and Tim Tebow who’ve publicly touted the diet’s benefits, from shedding weight to slowing down aging. Here’s everything you need to know about going keto.
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