In a 24-week long intervention study, researchers recruited 84 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and randomly divided them into two groups. The first group of 42 received a low-glycemic diet with a 500 calorie/day deficit. The second group ate a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet with less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day without calorie restriction.
You may have noticed a bit of an explosion of gluten-free offerings on your grocery store shelves. Some may call it a trend, but over the last 70 years there’s been a steady increase in the number of people who don’t tolerate gluten or other grain proteins.[19] People with a sensitivity, intolerance or full-on Celiac disease experience any combination of brain fog, inflammation, fatigue, joint pain, and gut issues – and they tend to resolve simply by avoiding grains.[20]
Pros: Technically a subtype of low-carb diet, the keto diet is unique: By depriving your body of carbohydrates, you not only force your body to become fat-adapted, but also, if you keep protein low as well, elevate your levels of ketone bodies, which is basically a sign your body is running on fat. The keto diet puts you in a unique metabolic state called ketosis wherein your brain burns ketones instead of glucose—and, in doing so, supposedly leads to clearer thinking. Physically, eating such a high amount of fat significantly increases your body’s ability to burn body fat, according to the study analysis. Research also shows keto athletes have a higher VO2 max, and are able to lose fat without losing strength or power.
What the expert says: ‘There is a large amount of evidence to suggest that following the MD reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease,’ says registered Dietitian and British Dietetic Association spokesperson Kirsty Barrett. ‘Significantly, a meta-analysis of randomised-control trials in 2011 found that the MD was effective for weight loss, though results were better when the diet was combined with energy restriction and physical activity. It has also been found to reduce LDL (bad cholesterol) more than low fat and low carb diets.’
WH Verdict: While it’s unlikely to be popular with those who’ve chosen a plant-based lifestyle for ethical reasons, the principal of eating real, whole food is sound. And combining two ways of eating certainly makes it easier to get enough protein and vital nutrients. But it’s still pretty restrictive, so consult a nutrition professional to make sure you aren’t at risk of nutritional deficiencies.
If you want to lose weight, you’d better avoid special “low-carb” products that are full of carbs. This should be obvious, but creative marketers are doing all they can to fool you (and get your money). They will tell you that you can eat cookies, pasta, ice cream, bread and plenty of chocolate on a low-carb diet, as long as you buy their brand. They’re full of carbohydrates. Don’t be fooled.
What about fruits and vegetables? All fruits are rich in carbs, but you can have certain fruits (usually berries) in small portions. Vegetables (also rich in carbs) are restricted to leafy greens (such as kale, Swiss chard, spinach), cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, bell peppers, onions, garlic, mushrooms, cucumber, celery, and summer squashes. A cup of chopped broccoli has about six carbs.

Over 8–10 mmol/l: It’s normally impossible to get to this level just by eating a keto diet. It means that something is wrong. The most common cause by far is type 1 diabetes, with severe lack of insulin. Symptoms include feeling very sick with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and confusion. The possible end result, ketoacidosis, may be fatal and requires immediate medical care. Learn more
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