Asexual Reproduction: Spore Formation
Sporogenesis is the production of spores in biology. The term is also used to refer to the process of reproduction via spores. Reproductive spores are formed in many eukaryotic organisms, such as plants, algae and fungi, during their normal reproductive life cycle. Dormant spores are formed, for example by certain fungi and algae, primarily in response to unfavorable growing conditions. Most eukaryotic spores are haploid and form through cell division, though some types are diploid or dikaryons and form through cell fusion. Spore formation is the process by which fungi reproduce. Under favorable conditions, the spore grows and develops into a new individual. The spores have a hard protective coat, so they can withstand unfavorable conditions. A mode of reproduction resembling multiple fission, common among Protozoa, in which the organism breaks up into a number of pieces, or spores, each of which eventually develops into an organism like the parent form. There is formation of reproductive cells or spores, as in the growth of bacilli. A spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the saprophyte.
Procedure of Sporogenesis
It is generally seen in bacteria and most fungi. One of the cells enlarges and forms the sporangium (literally meaning spore sac). The nucleus divides many times and then the daughter nuclei are surrounded with protoplasm bits to form daughter cells called spores. The spores are covered with a thick wall called the cyst. On maturation, the sporangium bursts and releases the spores. The spores germinate on getting favorable conditions. For example, fungi such as Mucor and Rhizopus.
The advantage is that despite of unfavorable environment, their species will not be demolished. In asexual reproduction, higher numbers of offspring are produced. The advantage of having offspring in greater number is that their survival rate increases greatly. Production of spores is one form of asexual reproduction that is highly effective from the point of dissemination. The spores being light in weight are carried to long distances by means of wind and water. Even animals carry out dispersal of spores that are attached to their bodies.